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The Swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Papilioninae) of Papua Indonesia

by Jan Moonen


Graphium (Pathysa) aristeus (Stoll, 1782)

ssp. parmatus (Gray, 1852)

references and synonymy:

Papilio aristeus Stoll, 1782: (Ambon)
Iphiclides aristeus: Hübner, 1816
Papilio parmatus Gray, 1852 : (Australia) ; Wallace, 1865 (Aru, Waigeu, Australia)
Papilio aristeus: Pagenstecher, 1884 (Australia)
Papilio anticrates var parmatus: Eimer, 1889
Papilio pherecrates Felder, 1865 (syn.): (Nov. Guinea)
Papilio parmatus ssp. guineensis Grose Smith, 1894 (syn.): (Humboldt Bay)
Papilio anticrates parmatus: Rothschild, 1895 (Aru, Waigeu, New Guinea, Queensland)
Papilio aristeus parmatus: Jordan, 1909 (Aru, Waigeu, Holländisch, Deutsch und Britisch Neu-Guinea, Queensland)
Papilio aristeus parmatinus Fruhstorfer, 1909) (syn.): (Waigeu)
Papilio aristeus parmatus: Rothschild, 1916 (Base Camp, Canoe Camp [Wollaston Exp.])
Graphium aristeus parmatus: D'Abrera, 1971 (Aru, Waigeu, W.Irian, PNG and N.Queensland to Rockhampton)
Graphium aristeus parmatus: Tsukada & Nishiyama, 1982 (Aru, Waigeu, New Guinea, Queensland)

fig. 1 Graphium aristeus parmatus (male, a. upperside, b. underside), Miei, Wandammen Peninsula (RMNH)

fig. 2 Graphium aristeus parmatus (female, a. upperside, b. underside), Miei, Wandammen Peninsula (RMNH)


Graphium aristeus is the only species of the antiphates group of Graphium that occurs in Papua and the South Molluccas. In the North Molluccas only two species are found of this group: Graphium aristeus and G. euphrates.
The antiphates group can be divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup has a species with a wide range, while the other species are more confined. It is remarkable that G. aristeus does not occur in Sulawesi and surrounding islands. It seems a gap in the distributional range, but in Sulawesi three different species have evolved: the similar G. rhesus and the larger, long tailed G. dorcus and G. androcles [see table 1].
Like all the species of the antiphates group G. aristeus parmatus also can be found gathering on mud to drink water with minerals (see below).






STATUS: A common species, widely distributed all over New Guinea.

PAPUA LOCALITIES: Salawati: Salawati Mountain; Biak: Wardo; New Guinea: Akimuga (Kampong Baru & Fafafuku), Beaufortbivak, Dabra (Mamberamo), East Tami, Homasam (Kobakma), Kobakma, Kopi River (Timika), Kuala Kencana (Timika), Lereh, Miei, Nagramorda, Samabusa (Nabire), Sabang, Sarmi, Sorong, Tanah Merah, Ubrub (Keerom), Van Weels Camp, Web (Keerom), Wendesi, Werba (Fakfak). Details in gazetteer.

EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION: Northern India, Sikkim to South China, Philippines and Indonesia, New Guinea, Queensland, New Britain, New Ireland and Manus.

DATA SOURCES: KSP, RMNH. Literature (see below).





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Collins, N.M. & M.G. Morris 1985. Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. The IUCN Red Data Book. vii + 401 pp + 8 pls. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, U.K.
Cramer 1780-1790. Uitlandsche Kapellen, voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven. “1779” Amsterdam, Baalde, en Utrecht,
Wild. 4 vols and Suppl. (Aanhangsel) Vol.4 onwards completed by Stoll.
D'Abrera, B. 1971. Butterflies of the Australian Region. Lansdowne Press Pty Ltd, Melbourne: 415 pp.
Gray, 1852 [1853]. Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the British Museum, Pt.1 Papilionidae “1852” London, British Museum 4to :iii+84 pp, 13 pls + supplement.
Igarashi, S. 1979. Papilionidae and their early stages. (in Japanese) Vol.I Text:1-218, ill. Vol.II Plates color:1-223; bl/w:1-32; bl/w:1-102 (foodplants) Kodansha, Tokyo.
Jordan, K 1908-1910. Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae. Papilio to Armandia In Seitz, Grossschmetterlinge der Erde 9:11-109,112, pls 1-49.
Mastrigt, H.van & E. Rosariyanto 2005. Kupu Kupu, Untuk Wilayah, Mamberamo Sampai, Peg. Cyclops. Conservation International.
Parsons, M. 1998. The Butterflies of Papua New Guinea. Their Systematics and Biology. Academic Press. San Diego, etc.
Rothschild, W. 1895. A Revision of the Papilios of the eastern Hemisphere, exclusive of Africa. Novitates Zoologica II(3):167-463. pl.4.
Rothschild, W. 1916. Lepidoptera collected by the British Ornithologists’ Union and Wollaston Expeditions in the Snow Mountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea. Reports on the collections B.O.U.exp. and W.exp. Vol.II. London, 1916 (Papilionidae p.1-4).
Tsukada, E. & Y.Nishiyama 1982. Papilionidae. In Tsukada, E. (ed.) Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands. 1457 pp. Plapac Co. Ltd. Tokyo [NB Japanese edition 1980]